A valve is a device or natural object that regulates, directs, or controls the flow of a fluid by opening, closing, or partially blocking various passageways. Valves are technically accessories, but are usually treated as a separate category. Valves are used to start or stop flow, control or restrict flow, prevent backflow, or relieve and control pressure in liquid or gas handling applications.
What are the different types of valves?
Different types of valves are available. Each of these types has a number of models, each with different features and functional capabilities.
- Gate Valve:The gate valve works through the interaction of the disc in its body. You can have a single disk or a double disk. It is used for shutdown operation. With the double disc valve, the closure is good.
- Globe/Shut-off valve: Works by spool or cone action. The disk or plug moves toward or away from the seat, stopping fluid flow or allowing fluid flow.
- Plug Valve: The plug valve is used for on and off operation. It is the oldest type of valve. The main parts of a valve are the body, the obturator, and the operculum. The plug can be cylindrical or conical. The stopper has a slit cut out to allow liquid to flow out.Ensures a straight line and opens or closes with just a quarter turn.
- Ball Valve: The ball valve has a ball cone. The ball stud is a control. They are widely used in the chemical process industry. It is used when a combination of throttling and shut-off is required. This valve Offers good flow properties.
- Butterfly Valve: In the butterfly valve, the control element is a disc called a vane, vane, or flapper that rotates in a horizontal or vertical direction and allows the fluid to flow. The butterfly valve is suitable for throttling or on-off service with low pressure drop.
- Check Valve: It is used to prevent flow reversal. The fluid pressure keeps the valve open. It is closed by the back pressure of the liquid or by the weight of the control system.
- Diaphragm Valve: The main parts of a diaphragm valve are the body, the bonnet and a flexible diaphragm. The diaphragm rises when the valve opens and is pressed firmly against the bottom of the valve when it closes. Diaphragm valves are divided into: 1. Weir type and 2. Direct type.
- Pinch Valve: It can be used for on-off and throttling operations. The valve has a sleeve that is replaceable. It has low maintenance costs, low pressure drop and low initial cost. It can be used to handle mud. Its operating mechanism is completely isolated from the liquid.This eliminates corrosion and contamination problems.
- Control valves: It is required for an automatic process control system. It can be used to control liquid level, flow, temperature, pressure, etc. Control valve selection includes its operating mechanism, process conditions, and requirements. It can be manual or motorized.
The three common valve functions include stopping and starting flow, throttling (control) flow, and acting as a non-return check for flow (check). Industrial valves can vary greatly in size and design but there are several basic components to valve functionality.
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